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Build-outs, also known as road width restrictions are a form of traffic calming, involving the narrowing of an existing road profile by the extension of a pavement or other raised surface.
They can be used as a speed restriction measure by simple narrowing of the carriageway, but can also be used at junctions, by increasing the angle of deflection necessary to negotiate the turning movement. They can also be used in pairs to create a chicane.
Build-outs are also used to aid pedestrians in crossing roads. In these circumstances the design should allow the pedestrian user a clearer view of the roadway and approaching vehicles.