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Smart Motorway

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Smart Motorway
Early Morning Traffic on the M42 Motorway - Geograph - 86205.jpg
Variable speed limits in use on the M42
Cameraicon.png Pictures related to Smart Motorway
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Ramp Metering • Motorway
Related Terms
Active Traffic Management • Managed Motorway

Smart Motorways (formerly known as Active Traffic Management (ATM), Managed Motorways or Controlled Motorways) describes the modification of a motorway, usually in congested areas, with more advanced techniques to control and aid traffic flow. This either incorporates allowing traffic to drive on the hard shoulder under certain conditions (referred to as Dynamic Hard Shoulders or MM-DHS [1]) or converting the hard shoulder to a permanent traffic lane (referred to as All Lanes Running or MM-ALR). Originally referred to as Active Traffic Management, then Managed Motorways, latterly Highways England refer to these schemes as Smart Motorways.

On motorways upgraded to a Smart Motorway, more frequent overhead gantries or variable message displays are installed, emergency refuge areas (ERAs) are added to replace the loss of the hard shoulder, and variable speed limits are introduced. Signs and lights indicate if the hard shoulder is running and when to use it: sometimes the hard shoulder is used only for traffic heading off at the next junction, in other locations the hard shoulder might be converted to a running lane through the junction (known as Through Junction Running or TJR [2]).

Contents

History

The scheme is an expansion of existing schemes to use the motorway more effectively, such as Variable Speed Limits and Ramp Metering on motorways with variable traffic flows, where full widening might not be very cost-effective.

The first motorway to open with fully operating Active Traffic Management was the M42 between junctions 3A and 7. Plans to extend it to much of the English motorway network were announced by the Department for Transport in early 2009, and subsequently the scheme has been extended to the M6 and M40. It is an attractive political option because of its relatively low cost compared to full widening of motorways to D4M standard, which can cost more than £30m per mile widened. Concerns have been raised about the programme's safety implications as places to make emergency stops in the form of continuous hard shoulders are not available for much of the rush hour, as well as its longevity - the growth of traffic in the coming decades is likely to require more substantial widening or parallel construction at some point in the future.

Motorways being converted to Smart Motorways since 2013 will convert the hard shoulder to be a full-time running lane, as opposed to dynamic hard shoulders in previous schemes. Highways England explains this is to reduce confusion as to if the hard shoulder is open or not. [3]. The new design standards include using MS4 full-matrix variable message signs mounted at the verge more frequently than overhead gantries, however signals over each lane will be provided at on-slips and periodically on a long stretch of All Lane Running motorway. The distance between the emergency refuge areas (laybys) are also extended to up to 2.5km. [4]

How it works

On motorways converted to Smart Motorway, cameras and traffic loops are built into the motorway. When the traffic levels build up, the Highways Agency Regional Con­trol Cen­tres (RCCs) will first try and ease congestion by bringing in Variable Speed Limits. Sometimes this by itself may be enough to prevent the onset of congestion. If this doesn't work, Ramp Metering may also be switched on, if available.

If congestion is still building up, on schemes with a Dynamic Hard Shoulder, the RCC prepares to activate the hard shoulder as a traffic lane. Before doing so, a careful sweep is made to ensure the lane is clear of broken-down vehicles or other obstructions. If the Hard Shoulder is clear, overhead message boards and variable signs change to indicate the lane is open to all traffic. (If an obstruction is detected, the sequence is aborted). In some cases, the hard shoulder is purely for traffic exiting at the next junction; at other times, it becomes a normal lane of the motorway.

When the hard shoulder is closed, either a red X (without the flashing lights) or a blank overhead sign appears above the lane. [5]

In an emergency, the gantry or overhead message signs are used to show which lanes are closed and to move traffic away from obstructions.

Current Smart Motorways

Key: DHS: Dynamic Hard Shoulders, ALR: All Lanes Running, VSL: Variable Speed Limits, MTR: Ramp Metering, TJR: Through Junction Running

Image Road Junctions Elements Installed Notes
M1 widening J9 - Coppermine - 18695.jpg Chopsticks icon.png M1 6A - 10 VSL Equipment already installed in 2008 widening.
M1, southbound - Geograph - 4730118.jpg Chopsticks icon.png M1 10 - 13 DHS, VSL Dec 2012 Currently A5-M1 link roadworks going on - the ATM systems are partially inactive during this stretch. Construction due to end around 2018-2020.
Chopsticks icon.png M1 28 - 31 ALR, VSL March 2016
Chopsticks icon.png M1 31 - 32 VSL March 2016
Chopsticks icon.png M1 32 - 35A ALR, VSL J34 - 35A opened to traffic in December 2016, J32-34 is still under construction.
Lane drop through J24.
Chopsticks icon.png M1 39 - 42 ALR, VSL December 2015
Chopsticks icon.png M4 19 - 20 DHS, VSL Spring 2014 In conjunction with M5 J15 - 17
Chopsticks icon.png M5 15 - 17 DHS, VSL Spring 2014 In conjunction with M4 J19 - 20
Chopsticks icon.png M6 4 - 5 DHS, VSL, MTR, TJR (J4A west only) November 2009
Chopsticks icon.png M6 5 - 8 DHS, VSL, TJR Spring 2013 Strengthening of the hard shoulder took place Between September 2009 and March 2010. Highways Agency Project
M6 ATM- Geograph - 1680317.jpg Chopsticks icon.png M6 8 - 10A DHS, VSL, MTR
Chopsticks icon.png M6 10A - 11A VSL February 2016
Chopsticks icon.png M6 11A - 13 ALR, VSL February 2016
Chopsticks icon.png M25 5 - 7 ALR, VSL Spring 2014
Chopsticks icon.png M25 23 - 27 ALR, VSL November 2014
M42 Motorway North or West at Junction 3a - Geograph - 1283022.jpg Chopsticks icon.png M40 16 - (M42) 3A VSL (Westbound only) 2009
Chopsticks icon.png M42 3 - 3A VSL (Eastbound only) 2009
M42 TJR VMS.JPG Chopsticks icon.png M42 3A - 7 DHS, VSL, MTR, TJR (J5 south only) September 2006 The original trial instalation, publicly branded as "Active Traffic Management"
Chopsticks icon.png M42 7 - 9 VSL 2009
Chopsticks icon.png M62 25 - 26 ALR, VSL September 2013
Chopsticks icon.png M62 26 - 30 DHS, VSL September 2013

Future planned deployment

Image Road Junctions Elements Expected Start Expected Completion Notes Link
M1 J32 - J35A 2010/2011 2011/2012 Highways Agency
M3 J2 - J4A November 2014 June 2017 Highways Agency
M5 J4A - J6 ALR, VSL January 2016 November 2016 Highways Agency
M6 J13 - J19 DHS, VSL After 2015 Strengthening of the hard shoulder took place Between September 2009 and March 2010 Highways Agency
M25 J5 - J7 Spring 2013 Summer 2014
M25 J7 - J10
M25 J23 - J27 Spring 2013 Autumn 2014
M60 J8 - J18 VSL July 2014 September 2017 Highways England
M62 J18 - J20 ALR, VSL July 2014 September 2017 Highways England
M62 J25 - J30

The Highways Agency identified the following sections of motorway as having potential for future deployment of Smart Motorways - some sections have since been progressed to become schemes.

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Smart Motorway
Related Pictures
View gallery (26)
- Coppermine - 3966.JPG- Coppermine - 4197.JPG- Coppermine - 4199.JPGEarly Morning Traffic on the M42 Motorway - Geograph - 86205.jpgM1, southbound - Geograph - 4730118.jpg
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